During pre-historical times, where today is found Marche's region was inhabited by a population of hunters that lived in natural caves. From X century BC, the region started acquiring an ethnic unity with the Piceni people.
By the IV century BC, the northest part of the region is invaded by the Galli Senoni tribes, who settled within the protective valley of mountains and an important source of water.
This water source is the Aesis, or Esino river, which became the natural boundaries for the Galli Senoni territories and helped to shape regional linguistic and tribal delimitations onwards.
Two theories ae given for the name of the sino river: one theory states that Esus, the god of war of Celtic tribes, would have been the origin for the name of the river, while another theory elaborates it comes from the later Roman city Aesis (Jesi).
The first reference of an "Aesa" site is in a Latin epigraph dated from I century AD, walled in the base of the Piave bell tower (see Aesa's Stone).
Such "stone document" has been for many years object of study and conjectures. One of the theories refers to an ancient settlement of what became a colony of the rising Roman Empire under the Emperor Augustus.
The name Santa Anatolia was later adopted from the martyr of the III century AD who lived under Emperor Diocletian's rule. The martyr's grave lies under the Church of Pieve, since 1180.